Sewage Holding Tank Systems for Recreational Boats
KEEP OUR WATER CLEAN - USE PUMPOUTS
Boat owners and repairers...
This booklet will help you install or upgrade sewage holding tank systems to be in compliance with existing laws governing marine sanitation devices (MSD's). You will find information on how to choose a system, sewage system design and the selection of system components, plus helpful tips for installation and maintenance.
What is the law?
In response to growing fears of the "death" of our nation's bodies of water, Congress enacted the Clean Water Act of 1972 (amended in 1987). This law addresses a wide spectrum of water pollution problems, including marine sewage from boats in navigable U.S. waters including coastal waters from a distance of 3 miles offshore. The law further provides for "no discharge" by boats operated in enclosed lakes and reservoirs or in rivers not capable of interstate navigation. States may apply to the EPA to have certain other waters declared "no discharge zones" if discharge of treated sewage would be harmful. In short, boats with installed toilets must have an operable Coast Guard approved MSD designed to either hold sewage for pumpout ashore or for discharge in the ocean beyond the three mile limit, or to treat the sewage to Federal standards prior to discharge.
Why should you act now to comply with this law?
First of all, it is the law! All boats built since 1977 with installed toilets must have an operable approved type MSD. Since1980, all boats (including those built before 1977) with installed toilets must have an operable MSD. Nevertheless, boaters often bypass these systems and discharge untreated sewage directly overboard. If you flush your boat's toilet in violation of the law, you can assume others do too.
The basis for arguments that boat sewage is "peanuts" compared to other sources of pollution, that holding tanks "stink," that there's no place to pump out, and that the law isn't being enforced anyway, is weakening fast in these changing times. These facts are clear:
- Growth in boating is placing an additional environmental on crowded recreational waters.
- Government and citizens' groups are working aggressively to contain and prevent all forms of water pollution.
- Government grant money is funding a tremendous increase in the number of pumpout facilities.
- Advancing technology has given a wide range of "user friendly" sanitation system options.
Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that congress is considering proposals that would increase fines for flushing raw sewage and provide states with incentives for enforcing current laws. Clearly, it's time for all boaters to "do the right thing."
What can you do now to comply with the law?
Boaters share a common desire to play in and on sparkling clean waters. We can choose to pollute or not to pollute. We can do the right thing now, take action, and obey the law! Good environmental citizenship will help ensure our continued delight in clean waters. Use this information in choosing a marine sanitation device that best fits your needs.
What are your choices for compliance?
There are three types of Coast Guard approved marine sanitation devices (MSDs):
- Type I MSDs treat sewage so that the discharged effluent meets specified standards for bacteria content and contains no visible floating solids.
- Type II MSDs are similar, but must meet a higher standard of sewage treatment.
- Type III MSDs retain sewage for shore based disposal or discharge beyond the three mile offshore limit.
Boats 65 feet in length or less may install a type I, II, or III device. Vessels over 65 feet must install a type II or III MSD.
An approved system (Type I or II) will have a label verifying that it meets the Coast Guard regulations for design and construction and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and standards as required by the Clean Water Act. Holding tanks (Type III) do not require a certification label if they simply store sewage at ambient temperatures and pressures.
What system should you install?
If the boat is operated in waters designated for "No Discharge," you only have one choice...you must retain all sewage, treated or not, for disposal ashore. Choosing the system that works best will depend on several factors. The answer to a few questions about how the boat is used should help you narrow the choices and determine optimal holding tank capacity:
- How many people are usually on board for a trip?
- Is the boat usually used for day trips or for longer periods and overnight cruises? Usually day trips do not generate much solid waste. Overnighting virtually guarantees it.
- Does the boat anchor out overnight or tie up at a marina? When dockside, will you use the marina toilets?
- Are pumpout facilities located nearby?
- What are the boats design and space limitations for MSD installation?
- Is the electric power supply adequate for an electrically operated system?
Tips on How to Use a Pumpout
Whatever the model, follow the instructions posted, and use the pumpout for holding tank waste only. Pumpouts are not designed to handle bilge water or solid material.
- Close nozzle valve on pumpout hose.
- Remove deck waste fitting cover from boat (attach nozzle guard to deck waste fitting if available) and insert nozzle.
- Turn on pump
- Slowly open nozzle valve (valves can be difficult to turn, be persistent). Check the flow through the sight glass. If flow does not begin within one minute, place the nozzle in water for ten seconds. If there is still no flow check for an air leak in the line, or a plug in the holding tank air vent.
- When tank is empty, remove nozzle from fitting.
- Place the nozzle in water for 60 seconds to flush the line. Flushing helps prevent costly pumpout breakdowns.
- Close the nozzle valve.
- Turn off the pump and return the hose when you are finished so it will work for the next boater.
- Keep your MSD (marine sanitation device) in good operating condition. Make sure all fittings, hoses and other pump mechanisms stay clean and lubricated. Keep a complete repair kit for your particular type of head on board. Use rapid-dissolving marine toilet tissue specifically designed for MSDs.
- Follow pumpout instructions. If instructions are not posted, or unclear, ask. Encourage the marina operator to post easy-to-understand instructions.
- Rinse water through the pumpout system for one minute when finished pumping. Expensive breakdowns commonly occur when the sewer lines get clogged because of inadequate rinsing. Flushing water through the system is an inexpensive form of preventive maintenance.
- Pump out only your holding tank. Pumpouts are not designed to handle bilge water or other substances.
- Turn off the pump when finished so it will work for the next boater.
- Consider using a mobile pumpout service if you prefer not to service the head yourself.